Unorganized area (Canada)

An unorganized area or unorganized territory is any geographic region in Canada that does not form part of a municipality or Indian reserve. In these areas, the lowest level of government is provincial or territorial. In some of these areas, local service agencies may have some of the responsibilities that would otherwise be covered by municipalities.

Most regional districts in British Columbia include some electoral areas, which are unincorporated areas that do not have their own municipal government, but residents of such areas still receive a form of local government by electing representatives to their regional district boards.

The Stikine Region in the province’s far northwest is the only part of British Columbia not in a regional district, because of its low population and the lack of any incorporated municipalities. The Stikine Region—not to be confused with the Stikine Country or the Kitimat-Stikine Regional District—provides services and regulatory capacities in the same way as regional districts, however, but is managed directly by the provincial government instead of by a regional district board.

In Ontario, unorganized areas are found only in the Northern Ontario region, inclusive of the Parry Sound District, the parts of the province where there is no county or regional municipality level of government. Some communities within unorganized areas may have some municipal services administered by local services boards.

Unorganized areas in Ontario are named only by the district of which they are a part, with a geographic qualifier added when a single district contains more than one such area. Three of the province’s unorganized areas had no reported population in the Canada 2006 Census; they are marked with †daggers.

Unorganized territories (territoires non organisés) in Quebec are located within regional county municipalities. They are usually named for a geographic feature within the unincorporated area.

Philip Venables

Philip Venables (born 1979) is a British composer best known for his operatic and theatrical works with themes of sexuality, violence and politics.

Born in Chester, Venables studied at Jesus College, Cambridge and the Royal Academy of Music, where he studied under Philip Cashian and was awarded the DipRAM diploma and the Manson Fellowship in Composition.

Venables‘ orchestral works include Arc, written for the BBC Philharmonic; String Quartet for the Duke Quartet at Wigmore Hall; Hyaline, for the London Symphony Orchestra; and The Revenge of Miguel Cotto for the London Sinfonietta. His operatic and vocal works include In America et ego, performed at the Bregenz Festival; UNLEASHED, for the Grimeborn Festival; and Thalidomide for the BBC Singers. His artistic collaborations have included Bound to Hurt, with Turner Prize winner Douglas Gordon; and Illusions, with avant-garde cabaret artist David Hoyle.

Venables wrote the 2016 operatic adaptation of 4.48 Psychosis by Sarah Kane for the Royal Opera at the Lyric Hammersmith. Authorised by Kane’s estate as the first operatic adaptation of her work, the opera was well received by critics.

Venables is the Doctoral Composer in Residence at the Royal Opera House and Guildhall School of Music and Drama. In 2016, he became an Associate of the Royal Academy of Music.

Venables identifies as queer and many of his works touch on LGBT culture. He lives in London and Berlin.

Смит, Майкл (биохимик)

26 апреля 1932(1932-04-26)

Блэкпул, Blackpool], Ланкашир, Англия, Великобритания

4 октября 2000(2000-10-04) (68 лет)

Ванкувер, Метро-Ванкувер[d], Британская Колумбия, Канада


молекулярная биология, биохимия

Университет Британской Колумбии

Манчестерский университет

изобретатель сайт-направленного мутагенеза

Нобелевская премия по химии (1993)

Майкл Смит (Michael Smith; 26 апреля 1932 года, Блэкпул, Великобритания — 4 октября 2000 года, Ванкувер, Канада) — канадский биохимик английского происхождения, лауреат Нобелевской премии по химии 1993 года, которую он разделил с Кэри Муллисом.

Майкл Смит родился 26 апреля 1932 года в английском городе Блэкпуле. В 1950 году поступил в Манчестерский университет, там же в 1956 году защитил диссертацию. После защиты диссертации Смит отправился в Университет Британской Колумбии в Ванкувере, где проработал всю жизнь вплоть до своей кончины в 2000 году. Смит работал в молекулярной биологии, изобрёл сайт-направленный мутагенез, который чрезвычайно широко используется в современной биологии. В 1993 году он получил за это Нобелевскую премию по химии.

Липскомб (1976) • Пригожин (1977) • Митчелл (1978) • Браун / Виттиг (1979) • Берг / Гилберт / Сенгер (1980) • Фукуи / Хофман (1981) • Клуг (1982) • Таубе (1983) • Меррифилд (1984) • Хауптман / Карле (1985) • Хершбах / Ли / Полани (1986) • Крам / Лен / Педерсен (1987) • Дайзенхофер / Хубер / Михель (1988) • Олтмен / Чек (1989) • Кори (1990) • Эрнст (1991) • Маркус (1992) • Муллис / Смит (1993) • Ола (1994) • Крутцен / Молина / Роуланд (1995) • Кёрл / Крото / Смолли (1996) • Бойер / Уокер / Скоу (1997) • Кон / Попл (1998) • Зевейл (1999) • Хигер / Макдиармид / Сиракава (2000)

Полный список | 1901—1925 | 1926—1950 | 1951—1975 | 1976—2000 | с 2001

Hebrew school

Hebrew school can be either (1) the Jewish equivalent of Sunday school – an educational regimen separate from secular education, focusing on topics of Jewish history and learning the Hebrew language, or (2) a primary, secondary or college level educational institution where some or all of the classes are taught in Hebrew.

The first usage is more common in the United States, while the second is used elsewhere outside Israel, for example, in reference to the Colegio Hebreo Unión in Barranquilla, Colombia, or the Associated Hebrew Schools in Toronto. See Jewish day school.

According to an article in the Jewish Quarterly Review entitled „The Jewish Sunday School Movement in the United States“ and printed in 1900, „the exact beginning of the American Jewish Sunday Schools is obscured by uncertainty and difficulty of opinion …“ though it is largely credited with the works of Miss Rebecca Gratz, a Philadelphia Native, who sought to provide Jewish schooling to those most in need. As students received secular schooling, Miss Gratz understood the need to provide Jewish history and Jewish traditions to those most lacking a basic understanding in Jewish Education. In fact, Jewish Sunday School grew largely in response to Christian Sunday School as a means of providing proper Jewish Education to students who otherwise lacked any religious grounding in Jewish traditions and history or lacked the financial means necessary to attend such a school. As a devout Jew, Gratz dedicated her life to helping the poor and neglected. In 1818, „under the sponsorship of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society, the Hebrew Sunday School Society of Philadelphia was created on March 4, her birthday, with about 60 students.“ To this day, Rebecca Gratz is referenced as „the foremost American Jewess of her day.“

Hebrew School is typically taught on Sunday and on one day of the week either Tuesday or Wednesday in the evening following secular education in private or public schools. Hebrew School Education developed in the 1800s and is largely credited to Rebecca Gratz.

Today, typical Hebrew School education starts in kindergarten and culminates in the tenth grade with confirmation. While the idea of confirmation largely grew out of Reform Judaism, it is largely practiced by both the Reform and Jewish Conservative Movements today. However, Hebrew School Education is based in the Reform and Conservative Movements and therefore, not practiced in the Jewish Orthodox Movement. Instead Orthodox students attend religious schools on a daily basis such as Yeshivas where they study Jewish texts like Torah and the Talmud in greater depth. Orthodox schooling often prepares young boys to become rabbis and involves a deeper level of study than Hebrew School Education provides. Whereas both boys and girls study in Hebrew Schools in a co-educational environment, education in the Orthodox community is based on single-sex education with greater emphasis placed on traditional roles for men and women.

However, some Orthodox congregations do offer Hebrew School for non-Orthodox students, such as the TAG Hebrew schools common in Chabad houses.

During kindergarten and first grade students are introduced to major Jewish holidays. Furthermore, they are introduced to the Aleph-Bet or Hebrew alphabet. Usually learning at this young age relies on a number of hands-on activities such as crafts, music, cooking and storytelling to engage young learners. Children will often sing songs in Hebrew to improve their Hebrew speaking skills and memory of Hebrew words. Additionally, students might learn the Aleph-Bet through puzzles and other fun activities. In addition to learning the Hebrew alphabet, children will also learn how to count to ten, how to identify major body parts, learn their Hebrew names and be able to recite prayers such as the blessings for Shabbat. In First Grade students will learn Torah stories such as Adam and Eve, and Joseph in Egypt. First Grade is sometimes referred to as Grade Aleph, corresponding to the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet.

During these years students build on a variety of skills and knowledge they have learned as youngsters while learning new skills like reading Hebrew, reciting common prayers such as the Shema and V’ahavta and learning by heart the blessings over the candles, wine and bread. Furthermore, students learn the concept of tzedakah, or charity, become acquainted with Jewish rituals and customs, and gain a better understanding of Jewish history and the land of Israel. Classes may also include lessons on Jewish ethics and morality. In the earlier years of Hebrew school children will explore God, spirituality and ethics. For example, God is one, God created the world and God brought us out of Egypt. In order to make Hebrew School a fun atmosphere for learning, and to teach children the mitzvot of Judaism, children will bake Challah for Shabbat, have class in a Sukkah during Sukkot or light candles during Hanukkah. These experiences teach children about the holidays and mitzvot better than just reading about them.

One of the most important events to take place during Jewish Education is the celebration of the Bar and Bat Mitzvah. Bar/Bat Mitzvah education begins in the 6th and 7th grade, when students are provided with an instructor – usually a rabbi or cantor – and begin studying their torah and haftorah portion by learning to use tropes, or „a system for chanting sacred texts.“ Oftentimes children will attend Hebrew School with the sole purpose of learning how to read Hebrew for their Bar/Bat Mitzvah. In these cases, the students will mostly learn the Hebrew words that are in the Torah portion they will be reciting.

Nathan Cutler

Nathan Cutler (* 29. Mai 1775 in Lexington, Massachusetts; † 8. Juni 1861) war ein US-amerikanischer Politiker (Demokratisch-Republikanische Partei) und von 1829 bis 1830 Gouverneur von Maine.

Nathan Cutler besuchte die Leicester Academy und das Dartmouth College. Dort machte er im Jahr 1798 seinen Abschluss. Nach einem anschließenden Jurastudium wurde er im Jahr 1801 als Rechtsanwalt zugelassen, worauf er in Farmington zu praktizieren begann.

In den Jahren 1809 bis 1811 und nochmals im Jahr 1819 war er Abgeordneter im Repräsentantenhaus von Massachusetts. Er war außerdem Delegierter auf der verfassungsgebenden Versammlung von Maine im Jahr 1819. Im Jahr 1828 war er im Senat von Maine und diente dort als Präsident. Als am 8. Oktober 1829 der amtierende Gouverneur Enoch Lincoln im Amt verstarb, musste laut Verfassung der Senatspräsident dessen Amtszeit als Gouverneur beenden. Damit war Cutler zwischen dem Oktober 1829 und dem 6. Januar 1830 Gouverneur von Maine. In dieser kurzen Zeit konnte er keine politischen Akzente setzen. Nach dem Ende seiner Gouverneurszeit war Cutler Wahlmann bei den Präsidentschaftswahlen des Jahres 1832. Im Jahr 1844 war er Abgeordneter im Staatsrepräsentantenhaus von Maine. Nathan Cutler starb hochbetagt im Jahr 1861. Er war mit Hannah Moore verheiratet, mit der er neun Kinder hatte.

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Iris maackii

Iris maackii is a species in the genus Iris, it is also in the subgenus of Limniris and in the Iris series Laevigatae. It is a rhizomatous perennial.

It was first published (and described) by Karl Maximovich in ‚Bulletin de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg‘ in 1880. It was published as ‚Limniris maackii‘ in ‚Botanicheskii Zhurnal‘ (Moscow & Leningrad) on 18 Apr 2007. But this was classed as a synonym of ‚Iris maackii‘. Whose name was accepted by Nina Alexeyeva in her book of 2008 ‚Genus Iris L.‘, written in Russian and published in Turczaninowia (journal).

It is known as 乌苏里鸢尾 or wu su li yuan wei in China.

The original collection consisted of seed pods only, later named as a synonym of Iris laevigata before being re-classified as a species.

Iris maackii is now an accepted name by the RHS. Although it is not an accepted name at Kew Gardens in the UK, it is thought to be very similar to Iris laevigata, especially its seeds and capsules. The Kew botanists currently call it ‚Iris maackii‘, due to no other acceptable name.

It can be seen at the Arboretum and Botanical Garden, University of Bergen, Norway.

It is listed in ‚Forest Vegetation of Northeast Asia‘.

It is similar to Iris pseudacorus, in cultivation use and form. It is hardy to USDA Zone 6.

It can hybridize with many other irises.

Iris maackii has a thick rhizome.

It has several branched flowering stems (or scape) which can reach about 80 cm (32″) tall in May. The oval shaped spathes are green (measuring 5 cm x 1.5 cm) and having between 1 and 2 flowers per stem. The flowers come in various shades of yellow, from creamy-yellow, to yellow. The flowers are about 5 cm (2 in) in diameter, with a perianth tube of 1 cm long. It has yellow anthers on 2.5 cm long stamens.

It has sword-shaped grey-green leaves, that grow up to 18″ long, (or between 20–45 cm long and about 1 cm wide). The leaves have a fan-like appearance.

Between June and August, it sets seed. The capsules are ellipsoid-cylindric (6–9 cm long and 1.5 cm wide). They have 6 ribs and end in a beak-like point. Inside are maroon brown seeds that are about 7 × 5mm in size. The seed heads can be another garden feature of the plant.

Iris maackii is native to moist soils near ponds and lakes from northeastern China into eastern Russia. Like Iris typhofolia, it can be found near to the Amur River and Ussuri River swamps, along the Russian/Chinese border. Also near East Heilongjiang, Liaoning in China.

It is found in damp places near ponds and lakes at altitudes of between near sea level, rising up to 300m (above sea level).

Sultan Yahya

Yahya (1585–1649) was the third son of Ottoman Sultan Murad III. His mother Elena was a princess from the Byzantine Komnenós dynasty of Trebizond, a surviving branch of the Byzantine imperial family of the same name from Constantinople. When his brother, Mehmet, became Sultan, he followed the Ottoman custom of executing all of his brothers (potential rival claimants to the Ottoman throne). Yahya’s mother was concerned that this could also eventually happen to him after the death of his father, so he was smuggled out of the empire, first to Greece, and then to present-day Bulgaria. He was then supposedly baptized at an Orthodox Christian monastery, where he lived for the next eight years of his life.

Eventually, Yahya’s two older brothers died, but in 1603, since Yahya had escaped the country to avoid fratricide, his nephew Ahmed I (the fourth-born) became Ottoman sultan. Yahya believed that as the next oldest son of Murat III, he was next in line to be Ottoman Sultan and felt cheated out of his rightful destiny. He would dedicate the rest of his life to gaining the Ottoman throne. However, the standard Ottoman practice at the time for determining the succession was not birth order of sons; instead the Ottoman laws of succession to the throne stated that after the death of their father, the Ottoman princes would fight among themselves until one emerged triumphant.

From 1603 on, Yahya made frequent trips to northern and western Europe to gain support for his claim to the throne (visiting Florence, Madrid, Rome, Kraków, Antwerp, Prague, and other cities). Between 1614 and 1617, he schemed with Serbian Orthodox Christian bishops in Kosovo and Western Roman Catholic bishops and leaders as part of his strategy to gain the Ottoman throne. A few years later, with the assistance of Russian and Ukrainian cossacks, he led a fleet of 130 ships and unsuccessfully attacked Istanbul. He died in 1649 on the Montenegrin coast, where he was involved in a rebellion organized by the Roman Catholic bishops of Skodra-and-Bar.

He married in 1629 the Albanian Princess Anna Katharina a descendant of Skanderbeg and had three Children:

List of unrecognized heirs of the Ottoman dynasty

Peter Fairbairn

Sir Peter Fairbairn (1799–1861) was a Scottish engineer and inventor and mayor of Leeds, West Yorkshire.

Peter Fairbairn was the youngest brother of Sir William Fairbairn, born at Kelso in Roxburghshire in September 1799. He had little education, and his father obtained a situation for him in 1811 in the Percy Main colliery at Newcastle-on-Tyne. For three years Peter continued at Percy Main, until, at the age of fourteen, he was apprenticed to a millwright and engineer in Newcastle. He walked every day from Percy Main to Newcastle. During his apprenticeship he made the acquaintance of Henry Houldsworth of Glasgow, a mechanic and constructor of cotton machinery, under whom he was placed as foreman, ultimately being appointed traveller to the firm.

In 1821 he left Houldsworth to take a situation on the continent. In France he stayed a year, acquiring technical knowledge; and after a period in the Manchester establishment of his brother William accepted a partnership with his former employer, Houldsworth.

In 1828 he left Glasgow and began business in Leeds as a machine maker. He had no capital; but Leeds was then in the first flush of its manufacturing prosperity.

Fairbairn had already devoted attention to flax-spinning machinery, which had been developed in Leeds by Philippe de Girard, a French inventor. Fairbairn suggested an improvement by which the process was simplified and a great saving effected. He proposed to use eighty spindles instead of forty, and to substitute screws for the old ‘fallers’ and ‘gills.’ John Anderson, a Glasgow workman, joined him in perfecting the machine, which was constructed in a small room in Lady Lane, Leeds.

John Marshall, a prominent local flax-spinner, promised to replace his old machines with Fairbairn’s as fast as they could be turned out. Fairbairn said that he had neither workshop nor money; Marshall encouraged him to take the Wellington foundry at the New Road End, which was then to let. Fairbairn became in time independent of Marshall’s support. Further improvements were introduced, and he constructed woollen as well as flax machinery. His improvement in the roving-frame, and his adaptation of what is known as the ‘differential motion’ to it, his success in working the ‘screw gill’ motion, and his introduction of the rotary gill, were all factors in the growth of mechanical efficiency.

Other inventions included machines for preparing and spinning silk waste, and improvements in machinery for making rope yarn. The construction engineering tools was later included at the Wellington foundry, and the Crimean War gave an impetus to this branch of the business. Fairbairn constructed large machines, utilised at Woolwich and Enfield, for the purposes of cutting, twisting, boring, and tearing iron and steel: cannon-rifling machines, milling machines, planing and slotting machines, and others. His foundry had become a major concern before his death, on 4 January 1861.

In 1836 Peter Fairbairn was elected to the Leeds town council, on which he sat until 1842, resigning in that year on account of the increasing demands of his business. In 1854 he was elected an alderman, and, after being appointed a magistrate, was mayor in 1857–8 and 1858–9. Leeds Town Hall was opened by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert during his mayoralty, and Fairbairn, who distinguished himself as a host, received the honour of knighthood.

During his mayoralty the British Association visited Leeds. He presented to the town hall a statue of the queen by Matthew Noble. The inhabitants of Leeds subscribed for a portrait of Fairbairn by Sir Francis Grant, which hung in the council chamber, and for a bronze statue of him by Noble.

Fairbairn was twice married, his first wife, by whom he had one son and two daughters, being Margaret, daughter of Mr. Robert Kennedy of Glasgow; she died in 1843. In 1855 he married Rachel Anne, fourth daughter of Robert William Brandling, of Low Gosforth, Newcastle, and widow of Capt. Charles Bell, R.N.; she survived him.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: „Fairbairn, Peter“. Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 

Campeonato Mineiro 2014

In 2014 werd het 100ste Campeonato Mineiro gespeeld voor voetbalclubs uit de Braziliaanse staat Minas Gerais. De competitie werd gespeeld van 26 januari tot 13 april en werd georganiseerd door de Federação Mineira de Futebol. Cruzeiro werd kampioen.

In geval van gelijkspel gaat de titel naar Cruzeiro omdat ze in de competitie hoger eindigden.

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Liste over elver i Troms

Dette er ei liste over elver i Troms fylke.

I Troms trekker vannskillet mot øst seg lengre inn i landet enn i nordre Nordland, og som i Trøndelag og på Helgeland gir dette grunnlag for lange elver og store vassdrag i fylkets indre deler. Dominerende i vassdragsnaturen i fylket er Målselva, som sammen sideelva Barduelva drenerer stort sett hele Indre Troms, og også Reisaelva, som drenerer en betydelig del av indre Nord-Troms.

De ytre delene av fylket preges av korte og strie elver, i likhet med mesteparten av den norske kysten mot vest. I forhold til i Nordland blir dog fjordene bredere og lengre, med store halvøyer mellom dem. Spesielt markert er dette i Tromsøområdet, hvor fjordene Malangen, Balsfjorden, Ullsfjorden og Lyngen strekker seg langt inn i landet mellom høye fjell, og danner en vassdragsnatur som man vanligvis finner i mere kystnære strøk.

Hver linje inneholder elvas navn og hvor den munner ut. Sideelver er innrykket i forhold til hovedelva, og er listet i den rekkefølge de munner ut i hovedelva, regnet fra munningen til kilden. Lista er begrenset til elver med nedbørfelt over 20 km² eller middelvannføring over 1,00 m³/s.

For bedre oversikt er lista delt opp i fire distriktsvise avsnitt: «Sør-Troms», «Midt-Troms», «Tromsøområdet» og «Nord-Troms». Større vassdrag er skilt ut i egne avsnitt.

Lista omfatter kun elver som helt eller delvis ligger i Troms.