Paul Mayrhofer

Paul Mayrhofer (* 5. August 1972 in Oberpullendorf) ist Universitäts Professor für Werkstoffwissenschaft an der Technischen Universität Wien.

Paul Mayrhofer studierte Werkstoffwissenschaften an der Montanuniversität Leoben. Nach der Promotion 2001 an der Montanuniversität Leoben (in Zusammenarbeit mit der Westböhmischen Universität in Pilsen, CZ) mit der Arbeit Nanocrystalline Hard Coatings arbeitete er als Universitätsassistent an der Montanuniversität Leoben und Post-Doc am Center for Microanalysis of Materials und der University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA. Von Jänner 2005 bis Juli 2006 verbrachte er sein Erwin-Schrödinger-Auslandsstipendium am Lehrstuhl Materials Chemistry der RWTH Aachen und der Abteilung Thin Film Physics der Universität Linköping. An der Montanuniversität Leoben erfolgte 2005 die Habilitation über das Thema Nanostructural Design of Hard Thin Films. 2012 erfolgte seine Berufung auf die Professur Werkstoffwissenschaft an der Technischen Universität Wien.

Mycoplasma gallisepticum

M.gallisepticum (MG) is a bacterium belonging to the class Mollicutes and the family Mycoplasmataceae. It is the causative agent of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys, chickens, game birds, pigeons, and passerine birds of all ages.

Mycoplasmosis is the infection of Mycoplasma bacteria. Mycoplasmas have many defining characteristics. Mycoplasma lack cell walls, have highly variable surface proteins and a distinctive plasma membrane, and are the smallest self-replicating prokaryotes. Mycoplasma can cause disease in humans, animals, insects, and plants. Mycoplasma attach to host epithelial cells, such as in the respiratory tract, which causes cell damage and inflammatory response. There are currently over 100 species of Mycoplasma known. The following have been isolated from wild birds: Mycoplasma buteonis, Mycoplasma corogypsi, Mycoplasma falconis, Mycoplasma gypis, Mycoplasma sturni, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. M. gallisepticum has the most significant effect on wild birds.

The disease was first described in 1905. It was described as a respiratory disease that was found in domestic poultry. However, it wasn’t for another 50 years that the causative agent, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, was cultivated.

In 1980, M. gallisepticum was isolated from wild turkeys in Colorado, Georgia and California. This was because of the mixture and close contact between the wild turkeys and domestic poultry during feeding time. This led to an increased awareness of the disease and health monitoring protocols in wild turkey restoration programs. These protocols are still being followed today by state wildlife agencies.

House finches were introduced into the eastern U.S. from California in the 1940s after being released from the pet trade that became illegal. House finches at the time were called “Hollywood finches”. In January 1994, the first house finches with symptoms of M. gallisepticum were observed in the Washington DC area, including part of Maryland and Virginia. In the winter of 1994, an epidemic of mycoplasmal conjunctivitis caused by M. gallisepticum began in house finches. In 1994, efforts were made across North America to collect data on the spread and prevalence of M. gallisepticum using the House Finch Disease Survey. A few years later the epidemic that started in the mid-Atlantic states spread to the entire eastern population of house finches. The only house finches to have this disease are those introduced to the eastern United States. It is believed that these house finches are less resistant to the disease because they were introduced and were highly inbred. The disease was stopped by the Rocky Mountains.

M. gallisepticum infection in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) causes conjunctivitis with the symptoms of periocular swelling, swollen eyelids, ocular and nasal discharge, impaired vision, depression, and weight loss. These symptoms cause house finch populations to decline due to increased predation and more susceptible to trauma from impaired vision. House finch conjunctivitis is most frequent during colder months when birds are using bird feeders and can cause birds to be reluctant to leave the feeders. Birds have been seen rubbing their eyes on branches or on bird feeders, which can help spread the disease.

Some major clinical signs of M. gallisepticum in chickens include those of respiratory distress such as coughing, sneezing, slight to marked rales, and difficulty breathing. Swollen eyelids, ocular discharge, and loss of sight are signs and symptoms that are very important for this disease as well. Poor productivity, leg problems, nasal discharge, stunting, inappetance, slow growth, reduced hatchability, reduced chick viability, and abnormal feathers are also some relevant clinical signs of the disease. “M. gallisepticum infections in chickens result in relatively mild catarrhal sinusitis, tracheitis, and airsacculitis.“

M. gallisepticum causes respiratory infection in turkeys which can induce sinusitis, pneumonia, and airsacculitis. With infectious sinusitis, the birds have symptoms of coughing, swollen sinuses, nasal and ocular discharge, tracheal rales, labored breathing, impaired vision, depression and weight loss. The disease can even cause death and found to especially occur if combined with E. coli. Outbreaks in turkeys occur at an early age usually between 8 and 15 weeks and about 90% of birds show signs. With breeding females, there could be a decline in egg production. “Occasionally an encephalitic form is seen in growing birds. A tenovaginitis may also develop and the organism can be found in the oviduct and semen of infected male birds, leading to infection in the egg and eventually of the young poulty.”

Other avian species that have been affected by this disease are pigeons, chukar partridges, quail, ducks, geese, pheasants, psittacine birds, and peafowl. Most songbirds are resistant except for the wild house finches and some similar species in North America. Some exotic birds infected by this disease include greater flamingos, wild peregrine falcons in Spain, and yellow-naped Amazon parrots.

M. gallisepticum can be transmitted within some poultry eggs, which can come from infected breeders to progeny. Also, M. gallisepticum can be infected via infectious aerosols and through contamination of feed, water, and environment as well as human activity on fomites which can come from equipment and shoes. When birds are stressed transmission can occur more rapidly through aerosols and respiratory which spread through the flock. When they are in a flock, transmission occurs by direct and indirect contact from the movement of the birds, people and fomites from infected species. With many outbreaks, the source of the infection in the flock is unknown. Some sources that could possibly cause infection and transmission are cold weather, poor air quality, concurrent infections, and some live virus vaccinations.

The greatest success in isolating M. gallisepticum has been from tissue swabs from live trapped or newly dead birds. It is difficult to obtain a sample from frozen carcasses. Tissue swabs are taken from the inner eyelids, sinus, and trachea. Many serology tests can be performed to diagnose M. gallisepticum: serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, hemagglutination inhibition test (HI), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The SPA test is more commonly used because it is the simplest and least expensive.

M. gallisepticum causes respiratory disease and weakens the immune system which makes the bird vulnerable to any disease that they come into contact with. Small bubbles will appear in the corners of the eyes and sinuses will swell up. Once infected, they are carriers for the disease for life. Some birds have good resistance to the disease while others may die; some become ill and recover and others may not show any symptoms at all. There is currently no risk to humans. For domestic animals, there is a high concern and there should be a prevention of any interaction between wild birds and domestic poultry. Wild bird species affected by the disease are infectious and are often found in close contact with domestic species.

Wildlife rehabilitators should be careful to not misdiagnose M. gallisepticum infection with other diseases with similar clinical signs, such as avian influenza, chlamydiosis, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, head trauma, and avian pox virus. M. gallisepticum can be treated with antibiotics such as tylosin, tetracycline, or oral enrofloxacin with ophthalmic gentamicin. These are given through food, water or injections. Especially tylosin gives good results in the feed. However, treated birds must be kept in captivity and isolation for a long time period because birds may become asymptomatic carriers. At this point, it is very difficult to verify if previously infected birds are still infected with M. gallisepticum. Treatment and release is not wise for disease control in wild populations.

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is believed to cost the worldwide poultry industry over $780 million every year. In the United States it is believed to cost over $120 million on egg production alone. Infection can lead to the culling of an entire flock to prevent further spread.

Since the disease causes reduced feed and growth production, carcass condemnations, and retarded growth in juveniles, serious economic losses have occurred. Also, chickens have been documented to lose about 16 eggs over their laying cycle of 45 weeks. This adds up to be a loss of about $140 million annually in the United States alone.

In the Beginning (Circa 1960)

In the Beginning (Circa 1960) er den første samlede amerikanske utgivelse av det tyske albumet My Bonnie av Tony Sheridan og The Beatles, da under navnet The Beat Brothers. Albumet ble spilt inn i Hamburg i 1961 og ble først utgitt i Tyskland i 1962. Albumet hadde tidligere blitt gitt ut i Canada under tittelen Very Together (1969) og Storbritannia under navnet The Beatles‘ First (1967).

Ettersom dette var Polydor, hadde ikke EMI rettigheter til albumet, og det ble gitt ut på CD, om da uten det upresiste paranteset (Circa 1960), da de var spilt inn året etter. Sporlisten var den samme, men «Take Some Insurance On Me, Baby» hadde fått navnet «If You Love Me Baby». I tillegg var det to versjoner av «Ya Ya».

Alle vokaler av Tony Sheridan hvis ikke annet står.

My Bonnie (Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers, Tyskland, 1962) · The Beatles with Tony Sheridan & Guests (USA, 1964) · Ain’t She Sweet (USA, 1964) · The Beatles‘ First (Tyskland, 1964 / UK, 1967) · Very Together (1969) · In the Beginning (Circa 1960) (1970) · The Early Tapes of the Beatles (1984) · Beatles Bop – Hamburg Days (2001)

A Collection of Beatles Oldies (1966) · 1962–1966 (1973) · 1967–1970 (1973) · 20 Greatest Hits (1982) · 1 (2000)

Rock ’n‘ Roll Music (1976) · Love Songs (1977) · The Beatles‘ Ballads (1980) · Reel Music (1982) · Tomorrow Never Knows (2012)

Hey Jude (USA, 1970 / UK, 1979) · Rarities (UK, 1978) · Rarities (USA, 1980) · Past Masters, Volume One (1988) · Past Masters, Volume Two (1988)

Yellow Submarine Songtrack (1999) · Let It Be… Naked (2003)

Jolly What! (USA, 1964) · The Beatles‘ Christmas Album (USA) / From Then to You (UK) (1970) · Love (2006) · I Saw Her Standing There (album) (2013) · The Beatles Bootleg Recordings 1963 (2013)

Sessions (planlagt utgitt 1985)

Live! at the Star-Club in Hamburg, Germany; 1962 (1977) · The Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl (1977) · First Live Recordings (1979) · Live at the BBC (1994) · On Air – Live at the BBC Volume 2

Anthology 1 (1995) · Anthology 2 (1996) · Anthology 3 (1996)

The Beatles Collection (UK, 1978 / USA, 1979) · The Beatles Box (1980) · The Beatles: The Collection (1982) · The Beatles Mono Collection (1982) · The Beatles Box Set (1988) · The Capitol Albums, Volume 1 (2004) · The Capitol Albums, Volume 2 (2006) · The Beatles Stereo Boxed Set (2009) · The Beatles in Mono (2009) · The U.S. Albums (2014) · The Japan Box (2014)

John Lennon · Paul McCartney · George Harrison · Ringo Starr

Pete Best · Stuart Sutcliffe

The Quarrymen · Decca audition · Beatlemania · Paul is dead · Brudd · Gjenforeninger · Samarbeid mellom eks-Beatles

Please Please Me · With The Beatles · A Hard Day’s Night · Beatles for Sale · Help! · Rubber Soul · Revolver · Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band · The Beatles · Yellow Submarine · Abbey Road · Let It Be

Introducing… The Beatles · Meet the Beatles! · The Beatles‘ Second Album · A Hard Day’s Night · Something New · The Beatles‘ Story · Beatles ’65 · The Early Beatles · Beatles VI · Help! · Rubber Soul · Yesterday and Today · Revolver · Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band · Magical Mystery Tour · The Beatles · Yellow Submarine · Abbey Road · Let It Be

Beatlemania! With The Beatles · Twist and Shout · The Beatles‘ Long Tall Sally

My Bonnie · Twist and Shout · The Beatles‘ Hits · No. 1 · All My Loving (EP) · Souvenir of Their Visit to America · Four by the Beatles · Long Tall Sally · Extracts from the Film A Hard Day’s Night · Extracts from the Album A Hard Day’s Night · 4-by the Beatles · Beatles for Sale · Beatles for Sale 02 · The Beatles‘ Million Sellers · Yesterday · Nowhere Man · Magical Mystery Tour

Live at the BBC · Anthology 1 · Anthology 2 · Anthology 3 · Yellow Submarine Songtrack · Let It Be… Naked · Love

1962–1966 · 1967–1970 · Past Masters · 1 · The Beatles Collection · The Beatles Box Set · The Capitol Albums, Volume 1 · The Capitol Albums, Volume 2

A Hard Day’s Night · Help! · Magical Mystery Tour · Yellow Submarine · Let It Be · The Beatles at Shea Stadium · The Beatles Anthology · The Beatles: The First U.S. Visit · All Together Now · The Beatles: Eight Days a Week

Allan Williams · Brian Epstein · Allen Klein · Derek Taylor · Lee Eastman · Neil Aspinall · Peter Brown · Mal Evans · Alistair Taylor · Apple Records · Dick James

George Martin · Geoff Emerick · Norman Smith · Ken Scott · Phil Spector · Jeff Lynne · Chris Thomas · Giles Martin · Abbey Road Studios · Dave Dexter, Jr.

Eric Clapton · Klaus Voormann · Harry Nilsson · Cynthia Lennon · Yoko Ono · Linda McCartney · Pattie Boyd · Jane Asher · Maureen Starr · Olivia Harrison · Barbara Bach · Billy Preston · Rory Storm · Tony Sheridan · Horst Fascher · Andy White · Jimmie Nicol · Astrid Kirchherr · Magic Alex · Tony Barrow · Ken Mansfield · Peter Shotton · The Beatles koner

Diskografi (sanger · bootlegs · outtakes · soloalbum) · Liste over Beatleskonserter · Platesalg · Love · Lennon/McCartney · Den femte Beatle · The Beatles (TV serie) · Den britiske bølgen · The Ed Sullivan Show · Apple Corps · Northern Songs · Harrisongs · Startling Music · The Beatles Anthology · The Rutles · Artister som har covret The Beatles · Sanger covret av The Beatles · Beatles-Platz · Jeff Lynne og The Beatles · The Beatles: Rock Band · The Compleat Beatles